The History Of Rome (The "Eternal" City)



The early history of Rome was governed by kings. There were only seven Kings that ever ruled Rome. Afterwards the Romans took power over their own city and ruled themselves. They later had a council known as the 'senate' which ruled over the Romans. From that point on; they would speak of the "Roman Republic".





The word "Republic" comes from the Latin words 'res publica'; (the language of the Romans) which means "public matters" or "the matters of state". The senate had appointed a consul, who ruled Rome like a king, but only for one year at a time. This was a clever idea and made the consul rule carefully and not rule as a tyrant, for he knew that otherwise he could be punished by the next consul the following year.

The history of Rome states that The Roman Republic was a very successful government. It lasted from 510 BC until 23 BC - almost 500 years.



Did you know that the History of Rome goes way back to the early days of Civilization? Today Rome is known as the "Eternal City". The Romans believed that their city was founded in the year 753 BC. Modern historians believe that it was founded in the year 625 BC.

More History Of Rome And The Battle Between Rome and Carthage

The greatest challenge the Roman Republic faced was that of the Carthaginians. Carthage was a very powerful city in North Africa which, much like Rome, controlled its own empire. The fight between the two sides was a long one and took place on land and on sea.

The most famous incident came when the great Carthaginian general Hannibal crossed the mountain chain of the Alps to the north of Italy with all his troops. This included his war-elephants. They proceeded to invade Italy.

Though Rome in the end won and Carthage was completely destroyed in the year 146 BC.



One Important Fact In The History Of Rome - Most Famous Citizen Was Julius Caesar

Rome's most famous citizen was no doubt Julius Caesar. He was a Roman politician and general who, without having any orders to do so, conquered the vast territory of the Gaul's to the north of his province in France.

In the year 49 BC Caesar crossed the small river between his province and Italy, called the river Rubicon, and conquered Rome itself which he then ruled as a dictator.

His military campaigns also took him to Egypt where he met the famous Cleopatra.

His life though was ended as he was infamously murdered in the senate in Rome.

So famous and respected was Caesar that a month of the year is still named after him and his heirs today, July (after Julius Caesar). Also the great English poet Shakespeare wrote a famous play called Julius Caesar about his famous murder.

After Caesar Followed The Many Emperors Of Rome- There Were Many Of Them.

Here are some of the most famous ones.

Augustus He was Rome's first emperor. He also added many territories to the empire.

Claudius He conquered Britain.

Nero He was know to be insane. He murdered his mother and his wife and threw thousands of Christians to the lions.

Titus Before he was emperor he destroyed the great Jewish temple of Solomon in Jerusalem.

Trajan He was a great conqueror. Under his rule the empire reached its greatest extent.

Hadrian He built 'Hadrian's Wall' in the north of Britain to shield the province from the northern barbarians.

Diocletian He split the empire into two pieces - a western and an eastern empire.

Constantine He was the first Christian emperor. He united the empire again chose his capital to be the small town Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople.

Romulus Augustus He was the last emperor of Rome, nicknamed Augustulus which means "little Augustus".

Justinian He was the last "great" emperor. He conquered many territories, created the 'Justinian Code' and built an amazing church named Santa Sophia.

Constantine XI The last emperor of Constantinople. He died defending his great city against the Turks.

The Roman empire in the end was overrun by millions of barbarians from the north and east of Europe. This is believed to have happened two or three times in history that huge migrations took place across Europe, where people moved to settle into new territories.

The great migration proved too much for the Romans to bring to an end. Their armies were designed to defeat other armies, not the thousands of people that came flooding towards them. The collapse was completed when Rome itself was conquered by the Visigoth Odoacer and his men in the year AD 476.

But what is commonly referred to as 'the Fall of Rome' doesn't include the eastern empire. This, with its centre in Constantinople, managed to cling on for almost another thousand years until it was eventually conquered by the Turks under their leader Mohammed II in the year AD 1453.

In The History Of Rome There Was Known To Be Four Classes Of People. This Was Very Important To The Romans.

The lowest class were the slaves. They were owned by other people. They had no rights at all.

The next class were the plebeians. They were free people. But they had little say at all.

The second highest class were the equestrians (sometimes they are called the 'knights'). Their name means the 'riders', as they were given a horse to ride if they were called to fight for Rome. To be an equestrian you had to be rich.

The highest class were the nobles of Rome. They were called 'patricians'. All the real power in Rome lay with them.





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